'-ly' words

'-ly' words
GRAMMAR adverbs related to adjectives
Most `-ly' words are adverbs of manner, aspect, opinion, degree, or extent. They are formed from adjectives and have a similar meaning to the adjective.

They were hoping to bring a quick end to the civil war.

...tasks that I would ordinarily have expected to finish quickly and easily.

She succeeded in retaining her political independence.

...where societies remained politically independent of their neighbours.

This is hardly surprising.

Surprisingly, I was not dismissed.

It is very easy to do severe damage to your eyes.

The roots are severely damaged.

Usually you just add `-ly' to the end of an adjective when forming an adverb.
bad — badly, beautiful — beautifully, quiet — quietly, safe — safely
Sometimes a spelling change has to be made, depending on the ending of the adjective.
Note that:
• the adverb related to `whole' is spelled `wholly'
• one-syllable adjectives ending in `-y' usually have `-ly' added in the normal way: `wryly', `shyly'
• the adverb related to `dry' can be spelled `drily' or `dryly'
• the adverb formed from `public' is `publicly'
For more information about `-ly' adverbs of manner, aspect, opinion, degree, and extent, see entry at ↑ Adverbials.
adverbs related to nouns
The adverbs in the following examples are formed from nouns, not from adjectives.

The other change, namely the increase in electronic equipment, has slowed down.

Here the problem is partly economic.

I am purposely picking out examples of children with mixed rates of development.

adverbs not related to adjectives or nouns
A few `-ly' adverbs are not directly related to any adjective or noun.
accordingly, exceedingly, manfully, mostly, presumably

This way you have a clear picture of how much you have to repay and can plan accordingly.

I could just see Simon manfully wielding a shovel.

'-ly' adjectives
Some `-ly' words are adjectives, not adverbs.

Current solar cells are too costly for commercial use.

...an elderly man with bushy eyebrows.

My husband said how lonely he had been while I was away.

I mustn't ask silly questions any more.

You cannot form adverbs from these adjectives. However, you can use them in prepositional phrases with nouns such as `way', `manner', or `fashion'. For example, you can say `He smiled in a friendly way'.
Note that `kindly' is used as an adjective and an adverb. See entry at ↑ kindly.
adjectives related to nouns
Many adjectives ending in `-ly' are formed from nouns referring to people, and indicate a quality that those people typically have or should have.
brotherly, cowardly, fatherly, friendly, gentlemanly, manly, miserly, motherly, neighbourly, saintly, scholarly, sisterly, soldierly, womanly

Tell them how cowardly you were as a boy at school.

He assumed an expression of saintly resignation.

She treated him in a cordial, sisterly way.

adjectives and adverbs
Some `-ly' words are both adjectives and adverbs. They are related to nouns and describe things that happen at regular intervals.
daily, fortnightly, hourly, monthly, quarterly, weekly, yearly

...daily or weekly visits to a children's clinic.

Maids were usually paid monthly.


Useful english dictionary. 2012.

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